Trump’s fake electors: Here’s the full list | The Pulse (2022)

Trump’s fake electors: Here’s the full list | The Pulse (1)

(Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

The 84 people who signed bogus documents claiming that Donald Trump won the 2020 election include dozens of local Republican Party leaders, seven current candidates for public office, eight current office holders and at least five previous state and federal office holders.

Groups from Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, New Mexico, Nevada, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin all allegedly sent lists of so-called alternate electors to the National Archives after the 2020 election. The slate of fake electors includes Lou Barletta and Charlie Gerow, both candidates for governor in Pennsylvania; Burt Jones, a candidate for lieutenant governor in Georgia; James Lamon, a candidate for U.S. Senate from Arizona; and candidates for state legislative seats.

The group also includes eight current officeholders:

  • Jake Hoffman, an Arizona state representative.
  • Burt Jones, a Georgia state senator.
  • Stanley Grot, the Shelby Township clerk in Michigan.
  • Amy Facchinello, a member of the school board in Grand Blanc, Michigan.
  • Robert Spindell Jr., a member of the Wisconsin Election Commission.
  • Sam DeMarco III, an at-large member of the Allegheny County Council in Pennsylvania.
  • Josephine Ferro, the Monroe County Register of Wills in Pennsylvania.
  • Kelly Ruh, an alderperson for De Pere, Wisconsin.

In addition to the chair, former chair, or co-chair of the state Republican Party in all seven states, the group includes people for whom political controversy and investigations are nothing new:

  • Michael Ward of Arizona has been accused of spitting in the eye of a former campaign volunteer for his wife, Kelli Ward.
  • Tom Carroll of Pennsylvania was accused by a Black colleague of leaving a stuffed monkey on her desk in a racist act, while he was serving as an assistant district attorney.
  • Gloria Kay Godwin of Georgia has been accused of stalking after allegedly attempting to interfere in a citizen effort to obtain signatures for a recall election petition.

The Justice Department has announced that it is investigating the attempt by the false electors to subvert the election.

On Friday, the Congressional Select Committee on January 6th also announced it has subpoenaed 14 of the counterfeit electors who it believes have information about how they met and who was behind the scheme, according to committee Chairperson Bennie G. Thompson, (D-Miss.). Each of the 14 served as “chair” or “secretary” on the state slates of fake electors.

According to recent reports, Trump’s then-attorney Rudy Giuliani led the scheme by submitting the slates of “alternate electors” to the National Archives. In March 2021, D.C.-based watchdog group American Oversight made public the documents, which it received in response to a public records request.

Attorneys general from the seven states involved in the scheme are investigating whether to bring charges against the Trump backers who participated. Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel has said there is “absolutely” enough evidence to charge the false electors with election fraud.

Here is a comprehensive list of all the bogus electors from the seven states, including the people who were slated to sign the documents but were replaced with alternates:

(A * indicates a person who was listed as chairperson or secretary of their state group and who was subpoenaed by the House Jan. 6 committee.)

ARIZONA (11)

Nancy Cottle*: Cottle is the first vice president of programs for the Arizona Federation of Republican Women. She has been active in Arizona politics for the past decade and holds various other positions on the Maricopa County Republican Committee and the AZGOP executive committee.

Loraine B. Pellegrino*: Pellegrino has served as president of Ahwatukee Republican Women.

Tyler Bowyer: Bowyer is the chief operating officer of Turning Point USA, a Phoenix-based nonprofit organization that advocates for conservative values in schools. He has previously worked for the Republican National Committee and the Maricopa County Republican Party.

Jake Hoffman: Hoffman is an Arizona state representative for the 12th District. Hoffman also runs a conservative digital marketing company, Rally Forge, that was banned from Facebook and suspended from Twitter for engaging in “coordinated inauthentic behavior” on behalf of Turning Point Action, an affiliate of Turning Point USA. The company was enlisting and paying teens to share comments with right-wing opinions, including that mail-in ballots would lead to fraud and that coronavirus numbers were intentionally inflated. Experts told the Washington Post in 2020 that the effort was “among the most ambitious domestic influence campaigns uncovered this election cycle.”

Anthony T. Kern: From January 2015 until January 2021, Kern was an Arizona state representative for the 20th District. He is currently running for election to the Arizona state Senate to represent the 20th District. Kern participated in the January 6 riots in D.C. and has lied about breaching the U.S. Capitol building

James Lamon: Lamon is running for election to the U.S. Senate to represent Arizona. He is a veteran and was previously CEO of DEPCOM Power, a solar energy contractor, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Robert Montgomery: In 2020, Montgomery served as the chairman of the Cochise County Republican Committee.

Samuel I. Moorhead: Moorhead serves as the second vice chair of the Gila County Arizona Republican Party.

Greg Safsten: Safsten is the executive director of the Republican Party of Arizona. He previously worked for Rep. Andy Biggs and Rep. Matt Salmon, both of Arizona, in their U.S. House offices, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Dr. Kelli Ward: Ward is an osteopathic physician who has served as the chair of the Arizona Republican Party since 2019. Following the 2020 election, Ward aided Trump’s efforts to invalidate the election results and filed a number of lawsuits to nullify Arizona’s results. In 2016, she challenged the late U.S. Sen. John McCain in the Republican primary but lost with 39 percent of the vote. She previously served in the Arizona state Senate.

Dr. Michael Ward: Ward met his wife, Kelli Ward, while he was serving in the Arizona Air National Guard. In 2019, he was accused of spitting in the eye of a former volunteer of his wife’s when she was a candidate for Senate because the volunteer went on to support her former political foe, Martha McSally. Michael Ward denied touching, pushing, threatening or spitting on the volunteer in an email to police, according to AZ Central.

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GEORGIA (16)

Joseph Brannan: Brannan is treasurer of the Georgia Republican Party, a media executive, and a leader in the Muscogee County party.

James “Ken” Carroll: Carroll is assistant secretary for the Georgia Republican Party.

Vikki Townsend Consiglio: Consiglio is assistant treasurer for the Georgia Republican Party and is on the board of governors for the Georgia Republican Foundation.

Carolyn Hall Fisher: Fisher is first vice chairman for the Georgia Republican Party.

State Sen. Burt Jones: Jones has been a member of the Georgia state Senate since 2013, representing the 25th District. He is running for lieutenant governor and is endorsed by Trump.

Gloria Kay Godwin: Godwin is a local Republican Party leader in Blackshear and the co-founder of grassroots group Georgia Conservatives in Action, according to her LinkedIn profile. In September 2020, she was accused of stalking after allegedly attempting to interfere in a citizen effort to obtain signatures for a recall election petition for Godwin’s grandson, District Five City Council member Shawn Godwin. She told the Blackshear Times that she was unaware of the complaint.

David G. Hanna: Hanna was CEO and co-founder of Atlanticus Holdings Corporation, an Atlanta-based financial holding company, until he left the post in March 2021.

Mark W. Hennessy: Hennessy is the CEO of several car dealerships around the Atlanta area.

Mark Amick: Amick is on the board of governors for the Georgia Republican Foundation. In 2019, Amick unsuccessfully ran for city council in Milton. In 2020, he served as a poll watcher in Milton County and testified in a hearing after the election that he saw more than 9,000 votes wrongly go to Joe Biden during the first Georgia recount.

John Downey: Downey is a House district chair for the Cobb County Republican Party.

Cathleen Alston Latham: Latham is an economics teacher with the Georgia Virtual School, according to her LinkedIn profile.

Daryl Moody: Moody is a GOP donor who is currently the chairman of the Georgia Republican Foundation.

Brad Carver: A lawyer focused on energy, utilities, environmental and local government law, Carver is a member of the Republican National Lawyers Association. Carver represents clients before the Georgia Public Service Commission in the Georgia General Assembly.

David Shafer*: Shafer is chairman of the state GOP and a Georgia state senator from 2003 to 2019 who was state Senate president pro tempore for many of those years. In 2018, he ran for lieutenant governor and lost in the primary. He was also accused that year of sexual harassment by a lobbyist, but was cleared by the Senate ethics committee.

Shawn Still*: Still is a board member of the Faith and Freedom Coalition in Georgia and is finance chair of the Georgia GOP.

C.B. Yadav: A small business owner in Camden County, Yadav is a member of the Georgians First Commission under the governor’s office. He was an early supporter of Georgia Gov. Brian Kemp’s gubernatorial campaign and worked as part of his campaign’s “grassroots army.”

Slated to sign but replaced:

John A. Isakson: Isakson is the chief financial officer for Preferred Apartment Communities. His father, Johnny Isakson, served as a U.S. senator from Georgia from 2005 to 2019 and represented Georgia’s 6th Congressional District in the U.S. House from 1999 to 2005.

Patrick Gartland: Gartland has served as the Cobb County Republican Party’s representative on the board of election.

CJ Pearson: A conservative activist, political adviser and commentator on cable news, Pearson has served as the executive director of Young Georgians in Government and executive director of Teens for Trump. He currently serves as the campaign manager for Vernon Jones, who is running in Georgia’s 2022 gubernatorial race.

Susan Holmes: A member of the Georgia House of Representatives from the 129th District, Holmes has also served as mayor of Monticello for 12 years.

MICHIGAN (16)

Kathy Berden*: Berden is a national committeewoman of the Republican Party of Michigan who has worked for the GOP at the local, state, and national level. Berden and her husband own an organic farm.

Rose Rook: A retired realtor, Rook was previously a Democrat and got involved with the Republican Party in 2016. She is the former Van Buren County GOP chair and served on the executive committee of the county party and as president of the Van Buren County Republican Women’s Club.

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Mayra Rodriguez*: Rodriguez is the Grosse Pointe Farms chair for the 14th District Republican Committee.

Hank Choate: Choate is a dairy farmer who sits on the board of directors for the Michigan Milk Producers Association. In 2017, he met with Trump to discuss agricultural issues. He said he became involved in Republican politics in 2010 and went on to serve as chair of the Jackson County Republican Party for four years and served as chair of the party’s 7th District.

Meshawn Maddock: Maddock is the Michigan Republican Party co-chair and serves on the national advisory board of Women for Trump. She is co-owner of A1 Bail Bonds, a bail bondsman company, along with her spouse, state Rep. Matt Maddock.

Mari-Ann Henry: Henry is treasurer of the Greater Oakland Republican Club, according to her LinkedIn profile.

John Haggard: Haggard is the owner of Haggard’s Plumbing and Heating and a veteran of the Vietnam War.

Clifford Frost: A real estate agent, Frost is a member of the Michigan Republican Party State Committee and board member for the Macomb County GOP. In 2018, Frost ran in the primary to represent the 28th District in the Michigan House but lost the race.

Kent Vanderwood: Vanderwood is vice president at the Timothy Group, which advances Christian organizations, and serves as committee chair for the Second District Republican Committee of Michigan.

Stanley Grot: Grot is the Shelby Township clerk and is currently running for the Michigan House. He previously served on the Sterling Heights City Council and as a Macomb County commissioner. He also chairs the 10th District Republican Party. In 2018, he ran for secretary of state but abruptly dropped out of the race, which became the center of an alleged payoff scandal that resulted in Michigan Party Chair Ron Weiser paying a $200,000 state fine for violating campaign finance law.

Marian Sheridan: Sheridan is the director of the Lakes Area Tea Party and co-founder of the Michigan Conservative Coalition, a right-wing group founded by the Maddocks. She serves on the executive board of the Oakland County Republican Party and as grassroots vice chair for the Michigan Republican Party. In February 2021, she asked Republicans to photograph addresses used on some voter registrations, claiming there were “thousands of voters in Wayne County who were not registered at legal addresses.” In 2020, she trained hundreds of poll challengers and joined as plaintiff in a lawsuit seeking to uphold the state’s 8 p.m. Election Day deadline for returning absentee ballots.

Timothy King: King sits on the executive committee of the Washtenaw County Republican Party and on the 12th District Republican Committee. In 2020, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat on the Washtenaw County Commission.

James Renner: Renner was a precinct delegate in 2020 for Watertown Township

Michele Lundgren: A photographer from Detroit, Lundgren was elected in 2020 to serve as the Republican delegate for her precinct to the county convention.

Amy Facchinello: Facchinello serves on the school board in Grand Blanc and has been the subject of protests over her QAnon social media posts. Facchinello has refused to resign. She has also been a precinct delegate and served on the executive board of the Genesee County Republican Party.

Ken Thompson: Biographical information for Thompson could not be obtained.

Slated to sign but replaced:

Terri Lynn Land: Land served as Michigan secretary of state as a Republican from 2003 through 2010. In 2014, she lost the U.S. Senate race to Democrat Gary Peters. She also serves on the Wayne State University Board of Governors.

Gerald Wall: Wall has served as the chair of the Roscommon County Republican Party for more than 20 years. An army veteran, Wall worked for General Motors but is now retired, according to his LinkedIn profile.

NEW MEXICO (5)

Jewll Powdrell*: Powdrell is a retired businessman and was managing director at ABQ Sales & Marketing Group, according to his LinkedIn profile. He told the Albuquerque Journal that he has “no regrets, whatsoever” about putting his name on the false elector document. Powdrell, a Black man, said he denounces the Black Lives Matter movement and criticizes politicians who lump Black people into one group.

Deborah W. Maestas*: Maestas is former chair of the Republican Party of New Mexico. Previously, she served as deputy campaign manager on Allen Weh’s unsuccessful 2014 U.S. Senate campaign and as president of CSI Aviation.

Lupe Garcia: Garcia is a business owner in Albuquerque.

Rosie Tripp: Tripp is the national committeewoman for the Republican Party of New Mexico, a former Socorro County commissioner and a former city councilwoman in Socorro.

Anissa Ford-Tinnin: Ford-Tinnin is the former executive director of the state Republican Party.

Slated to sign but replaced:

Harvey Yates: Yates is the national committeeman for the Republican Party of New Mexico. He served as chair of the party from 2009 to 2010.

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N0te: An earlier version of this report misstated Deborah W. Maestas’ position with the Republican Party of New Mexico. She is the former chair.

NEVADA (6)

Michael J. McDonald*: The chair of the Nevada Republican Party, McDonald is a former member of the Las Vegas City Council.

James DeGraffenreid*: DeGraffenreid has served as vice chairman of the Nevada Republican Party and is president of an insurance company.

Durward James Hindle III: Hindle is vice chair of the Nevada Republican Committee and is a managing partner at Cascade Survey Research, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Jesse Law: Law was recently elected chairman of the Clark County Republican Party and was a staffer on the Trump campaign.

Shawn Meehan: Meehan serves on the board of the Douglas County Republican Party and is founder of the Guard the Constitution Project, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Eileen Rice: Rice serves on the board of the Douglas County Republican Party.

PENNSYLVANIA (20)

Bill Bachenberg*: Bachenberg is the owner of Lehigh Valley Sporting Clays and an NRA board member. He and his wife operate Camp Freedom, a nonprofit that offers shooting experiences for veterans and first responders with disabilities and their families.

Lou Barletta: Barletta is currently running for governor of Pennsylvania. He previously served as a member of the U.S. House, representing Pennsylvania’s 11th Congressional District from 2011 to 2019, and as mayor of Hazleton from 2000 to 2010.

Tom Carroll: Carroll is currently running for district attorney in Northampton County. He previously served as assistant district attorney for the county but resigned after a Black colleague reported that he put a stuffed monkey with a shirt reading “Loudmouth” on her keyboard.

Ted Christian: Christian was the Pennsylvania state director for Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign. He runs the Philadelphia office for lobbying firm Duane Morris Government Strategies.

Chuck Coccodrilli: Coccodrilli was a board member with the Pennsylvania Great Frontier PAC and an advocate and board member at Camp Freedom. He died in October 2021 after an illness.

Bernadette Comfort: Comfort is the vice chairwoman for the Pennsylvania Republican Party. She works for Novak Strategic Advisors and has worked with the party to increase the number of women in decision-making positions. She was also a top aide to former Pennsylvania first lady Michele Ridge in the 1990s.

Sam DeMarco III: An at-large representative on the Allegheny County Council, DeMarco is the chairman of the council’s Republican Caucus. He is also the chair of the Republican Committee of Allegheny County.

Marcela Diaz-Myers: Diaz-Myers is the chairwoman of PA GOP Hispanic Advisory Council.

Christie DiEsposti: DiEsposti is an account representative at Pure Water Technology, according to her LinkedIn profile.

Josephine Ferro: Ferro was elected Monroe County Register in 2015 and is the former president of the Pennsylvania Federation of Republican Women.

Charlie Gerow: Gerow is currently running for governor of Pennsylvania. He is a GOP political strategist, the vice chair of the American Conservative Union, and the CEO of Quantum Communications, a Harrisburg-based public relations firm. Last July, he cooperated with a police investigation after he was involved in a fatal crash on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, which he says he did not cause.

Kevin Harley: Harley works with Gerow as managing director of Quantum Communications and has served as a spokesperson for Gerow. He has also worked as press secretary for former Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett.

Leah Hoopes: Hoopes is a small business owner and Republican committeewoman for Bethel Township in Delaware County who served as a poll watcher in 2020. She was named as a defendant in a Delaware County voting machine supervisor’s lawsuit alleging that Trump’s unsubstantiated claims that election officials tampered with the election made the supervisor the subject of physical threats.

Ash Khare: An immigrant from India and retired engineer, Khare is active in the Pennsylvania Republican Party and describes himself as a political junkie.

Andre McCoy: McCoy is a director of government affairs with more than 30 years of military service and civilian experience, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Lisa Patton*: Patton was the director of events in Pennsylvania for Trump’s campaign. She was the owner of Twin Ponds Family Recreation Center in Harrisburg, according to her LinkedIn.

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Pat Poprik: Poprik is the chair of the Bucks County Republican Committee.

Andy Reilly: Reilly is a national committeeman for the Republican Party of Pennsylvania and former secretary for the party. Reilly was previously elected twice to serve as a member of the Delaware County Council. He’s also managing partner at the law firm Swartz Campbell LLC.

Suk Smith: Smith is owner of Patriot Arms Inc., a firearms training center, and Dragons Way School of Kenpo Inc., a martial arts school in Carlisle.

Calvin Tucker: Tucker is deputy chairman and director of engagement and advancement for the Pennsylvania Republican Party. In 2016, he served as a media surrogate and African American adviser to Trump’s campaign.

Slated to sign but replaced:

Robert Asher: Asher has held several positions in the Pennsylvania Republican Party and has held various local elected offices. While chairman of the Republican State Committee of Pennsylvania, he was convicted in 1987 of conspiracy and bribery, among other charges, for accepting bribes in exchange for awarding a state contract. He resigned from the position and served one year in federal prison.

Lawrence Tabas: Tabas is chairman of the Republican Party of Pennsylvania, longtime general counsel to the party and a well-known Philadelphia elections attorney. Before the 2020 election, Tabas told the Atlantic that he had spoken with the Trump reelection campaign about the possibility that Republican-controlled legislatures could directly appoint electors, but he claimed the comments were taken out of context.

Thomas Marino: Marino was a member of the U.S. House from 2011 until 2019, when he abruptly resigned two weeks into his term. He has also served as U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. In 2017, Trump nominated him to be the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, but he withdrew from consideration after reports that he had crafted a bill that protected pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors and made it harder for the federal government to tackle the opioid crisis.

Lance Stange: Stange works for Novak Strategic Advisors and has served as chairman of the northeast caucus of the Republican Party of Pennsylvania.

Carolyn Welsh: Welsh was the sheriff of Chester County for two decades until 2019 and was one of Trump’s earliest boosters in Pennsylvania, often speaking at his rallies. In March, she entered a no-contest plea to misdemeanor theft charges for allegedly allowing employees to improperly collect comp time, paid for by tax dollars, for volunteering at fundraisers for the office’s K-9 unit. A judge ordered her to pay restitution and a fine.

Christine Toretti: Toretti is the national committeewoman for the Pennsylvania Republican Party and is the former chairman and CEO of S. W. Jack Drilling Co., an oil and gas company involved in fracking.

Robert Gleason: Gleason was formerly the chair of the Pennsylvania Republican Party. He is a businessman who was appointed by Trump in 2018 to the board of visitors of the U.S. Air Force Academy.

WISCONSIN (10)

Andrew Hitt*: The chairman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin from 2019 until 2021, Hitt is a partner at consulting and lobbying firm Michael Best Strategies.

Kelly Ruh*: Ruh is an alderperson for De Pere, chairwoman of the 8th Congressional District Republican Party, and a controller for Bay Industries in Green Bay.

Carol Brunner: Brunner is the vice chairwoman of Wisconsin’s 1st Congressional District Republican Party.

Edward Scott Grabins: Chairman of the Dane County Republican Party, Grabins is a technology professional, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Bill Feehan: A business manager based in La Crosse, Feehan was a 2012 candidate for District 32 of the Wisconsin state Senate.

Robert F. Spindell Jr.: Spindell has been a commissioner on the Wisconsin Election Commission since 2019. After Biden won the election, Spindell appeared at a “stop the steal” rally at the state Capitol.

Kathy Kiernan: Kiernan is the 1st Congressional District chairman for the Republican Party of Wisconsin.

Darryl Carlson: Currently executive director of conservative organization No Better Friend Corp., Carlson ran an unsuccessful campaign in 2014 for the Wisconsin State Assembly. He is a veteran and has also represented the 3rd aldermanic district in Sheboygan.

Pam Travis: Travis is treasurer of the Wisconsin Federation of Republican Women and the 7th Congressional District vice chairman for the Republican Party of Wisconsin.

Mary Buestrin: A national committeewoman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin, Buestrin says she has done volunteer work supporting Republican candidates for more than 50 years.

Slated to appear but replaced:

Tom Schreibel: Schreibel is a partner at consulting and lobbying firm Michael Best Strategies and a national committeeman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin.

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FAQs

How are electors chosen? ›

How are the electors chosen? Generally, the parties either nominate slates of potential electors at their state party conventions or they choose the electors by a vote of the party's central committee. Political parties often choose electors to recognize their service and dedication to that particular party.

What is a slate of electors? ›

A slate is a group of candidates that run in multi-seat or multi-position elections on a common platform.

How are electors chosen in Arizona? ›

Who selects the electors? Choosing each State's electors is a two-part process. First, the political parties in each State choose slates of potential electors sometime before the general election. Second, during the general election, the voters in each State select their State's electors by casting their ballots.

What do electors actually do? ›

A total of 538 electors form the Electoral College. Each elector casts one vote following the general election. The candidate who gets 270 votes or more wins. The newly elected President and Vice President are then inaugurated on January 20th.

How many times have electors voted against the popular vote? ›

History. Over 58 elections, 165 electors have not cast their votes for president or vice president as prescribed by the legislature of the state they represented. Of those: 71 electors changed their votes because the candidate to whom they were pledged died before the electoral ballot (in 1872 and 1912).

Why do we need the Electoral College? ›

The Electoral College is how we refer to the process by which the United States elects the President, even though that term does not appear in the U.S. Constitution. In this process, the States (which includes the District of Columbia just for this process) elect the President and Vice President.

Are electoral votes based on popular vote? ›

Usually, electoral votes align with the popular vote in an election. But a number of times in our nation's history, the person who took the White House did not receive the most popular votes.

What did the 24th Amendment eliminate? ›

On this date in 1962, the House passed the Twenty-fourth Amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections, by a vote of 295 to 86. At the time, five states maintained poll taxes which disproportionately affected African-American voters: Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas.

Is the Electoral College an amendment? ›

The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the president and vice president. It replaced the procedure provided in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, by which the Electoral College originally functioned.

Who could qualify as an elector? ›

A person who is qualified to register to vote pursuant to section 16-101 and who is properly registered to vote, if the person is at least eighteen years of age on or before the date of the election and has provided satisfactory evidence of citizenship as prescribed in section 16-166, shall be deemed a qualified ...

What is meant by a swing state? ›

In American politics, the term swing state (also known as battleground state or purple state) refers to any state that could reasonably be won by either the Democratic or Republican candidate in a statewide election, most often referring to presidential elections, by a swing in votes.

What are 3 powers of the President? ›

veto bills and sign bills. represent our nation in talks with foreign countries. enforce the laws that Congress passes. act as Commander-in-Chief during a war.

Who did the faithless electors vote for in 2016? ›

Three of the faithless electors voted for Colin Powell while John Kasich, Ron Paul, Bernie Sanders, and Faith Spotted Eagle each received one vote.

What states do not use the Electoral College? ›

Maine and Nebraska are the only states not using this method. In those states, the winner of the popular vote in each of its congressional districts is awarded one elector, and the winner of the statewide vote is then awarded the state's remaining two electors.

Who created the Electoral College? ›

As prescribed in the U.S. Constitution, American presidents are elected not directly by the people, but by the people's electors. The Electoral College was created by the framers of the U.S. Constitution as an alternative to electing the president by popular vote or by Congress.

How did the 12th Amendment change the Electoral College? ›

Passed by Congress December 9, 1803, and ratified June 15, 1804, the 12th Amendment provided for separate Electoral College votes for President and Vice President, correcting weaknesses in the earlier electoral system which were responsible for the controversial Presidential Election of 1800.

What part of the Constitution is the Electoral College? ›

The Founding Fathers established the Electoral College in the Constitution, in part, as a compromise between the election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens. However, the term “electoral college” does not appear in the Constitution.

Why were most of the framers opposed to choosing the President by popular vote? ›

Direct election was rejected not because the Framers of the Constitution doubted public intelligence but rather because they feared that without sufficient information about candidates from outside their State, people would naturally vote for a "favorite son" from their own State or region.

Does gerrymandering affect presidential elections? ›

Some political science research suggests that, contrary to common belief, gerrymandering does not decrease electoral competition, and can even increase it.

Which branch chooses popular vote? ›

Where the Executive and Legislative branches are elected by the people, members of the Judicial Branch are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

What is the only Amendment to be repealed? ›

Public sentiment began to turn against Prohibition during the 1920s, and 1932 Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt called for its repeal. The Eighteenth Amendment became the only constitutional amendment to be repealed in its entirety when the Twenty-first Amendment was ratified in 1933.

What is the 25th Amendment in simple terms? ›

Twenty-Fifth Amendment, Section 1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

What does the Fourth Amendment protect against? ›

The Constitution, through the Fourth Amendment, protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures by the government. The Fourth Amendment, however, is not a guarantee against all searches and seizures, but only those that are deemed unreasonable under the law.

Who could qualify as an elector? ›

A person who is qualified to register to vote pursuant to section 16-101 and who is properly registered to vote, if the person is at least eighteen years of age on or before the date of the election and has provided satisfactory evidence of citizenship as prescribed in section 16-166, shall be deemed a qualified ...

How are electors determined for each state? ›

Electoral votes are allocated among the States based on the Census. Every State is allocated a number of votes equal to the number of senators and representatives in its U.S. Congressional delegation—two votes for its senators in the U.S. Senate plus a number of votes equal to the number of its Congressional districts.

Who determines when electors meet? ›

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

What is the definition for electors? ›

Word forms: electors

countable noun. An elector is a person who has the right to vote in an election.

Why do we need the Electoral College? ›

The Electoral College is how we refer to the process by which the United States elects the President, even though that term does not appear in the U.S. Constitution. In this process, the States (which includes the District of Columbia just for this process) elect the President and Vice President.

Why was the Electoral College created? ›

The Electoral College was created by the framers of the U.S. Constitution as an alternative to electing the president by popular vote or by Congress.

How many electors are there? ›

Federal office holders, including senators and representatives, cannot be electors. Of the current 538 electors, an absolute majority of 270 or more electoral votes is required to elect the president and vice president.

What is the difference between the popular vote and the electoral vote? ›

When citizens cast their ballots for president in the popular vote, they elect a slate of electors. Electors then cast the votes that decide who becomes president of the United States. Usually, electoral votes align with the popular vote in an election.

How did the 12th Amendment change how we elect the President? ›

After the experiences of the 1796 and 1800 elections, Congress passed, and the states ratified, the 12th Amendment to the Constitution. Added in time for the 1804 election, the amendment stipulated that the electors would now cast two votes: one for President and the other for Vice President.

Is Electoral College in Constitution? ›

Established in Article II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution, the Electoral College is the formal body which elects the President and Vice President of the United States.

What is the 12th Amendment in simple terms? ›

The Twelfth Amendment requires a person to receive a majority of the electoral votes for vice president for that person to be elected vice president by the Electoral College. If no candidate for vice president has a majority of the total votes, the Senate, with each senator having one vote, chooses the vice president.

Who enforces the electoral college? ›

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the federal agency responsible for coordinating activities of States and Congress regarding the Electoral College vote for President.

What is the 26th Amendment in simple terms? ›

The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

What is the winner take all electoral system? ›

Plurality voting systems function on a "winner-takes-all" principle, which means that the party of the losing candidate in each riding receives no representation in government, regardless of the amount of votes they received.

What is a winner take all contest? ›

In economics, a winner-take-all market is a market in which a product or service that is favored over the competitors, even if only slightly, receives a disproportionately large share of the revenues for that class of products or services.

What is the definition of absolute majority? ›

absolute majority | Business English

a situation in which one person or party wins more than half of the total votes in an election: The President has an absolute majority in the National Assembly.

Videos

1. Jordan Klepper’s Top 10 Moments with Trump Supporters | The Daily Show
(The Daily Show with Trevor Noah)
2. Watch: Day 1 of Donald Trump's Impeachment Trial In Senate | NBC News
(NBC News)
3. Day 5 Of Donald Trump's Impeachment Trial In The Senate | NBC News
(NBC News)
4. How Holy Is Donald Trump? | The Daily Show
(The Daily Show with Trevor Noah)
5. Fourth day of Trump’s impeachment trial - 2/12 (FULL LIVE STREAM)
(Washington Post)
6. A Trump Supporter Ideology Test - Klepper Marathon | The Daily Show
(The Daily Show with Trevor Noah)

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